Acoustics (from Greek ακουστικός pronounced akoustikos meaning "of or for hearing, ready to hear") is the science that studies sound, in particular its production, transmission, and effects. The science of acoustics has many applications which are dependent upon the nature of the sound that is to be produced, transmitted or controlled.
This book aims to be an accessible introduction into the design and analysis of efficient algorithms. Throughout the book we will introduce only the most basic techniques and describe the rigorous mathematical methods needed to analyze them.
The topics covered include:
The divide and conquer technique.
The use of randomization in algorithms.
The general, but typically inefficient, backtracking technique.
Dynamic programming as an efficient optimization for some backtracking algorithms.
Greedy algorithms as an optimization of other kinds of backtracking algorithms.
Hill-climbing techniques, including network flow.
The goal of the book is to show you how you can methodically apply different techniques to your own algorithms to make them more efficient. While this book mostly highlights general techniques, some well-known algorithms are also looked at in depth. This book is written so it can be read from "cover to cover" in the length of a semester, where sections marked with a * may be skipped.
Veterinary nurses need to have a firm grasp of the normal structure of an animal’s body and how it functions before they can understand the effect diseases and injuries have and the best ways to treat them. This book describes the structure of the animal body and the way in which it works. Animals encountered in normal veterinary practice are used as examples where possible.
The Advanced Certificate and the Advanced Diploma in Applications of ICT in Libraries permit library staff to obtain accreditation for their skills in the use of ICT. Anyone can make use of the materials and assessment is available in variety of modes, including distance learning.
Applied ecology is a framework for the application of knowledge about ecosystems so that actions can be taken to create a better balance and harmony between people and nature in order to reduce human impact on other beings and their habitats.
This webpage displays a common conversation between three friends. The structure and topics of the conversation are purposefully general so as to be helpful to students' ability to create and sustain conversations of their own. The conversation includes Arabic text, transliteration, and translation.
A computer is an automatic, electronic, data-processing machine that takes in facts and figures known as data, and then processes or organizes it in some useful way. Afterwards it outputs, or displays, the results for you to see as information. Keep in mind that data is not information. Rather, information is the knowledge that you, the end-user, derive from accurate data that are entered into a computer. Only after processing, is data transformed into information which is then used for decision making. (Almost) each part of a computer can be classified as either hardware or software.
Nuclear Medicine is a fascinating application of nuclear physics. The first ten chapters of this wikibook are intended to support a basic introductory course in an early semester of an undergraduate program. They assume that students have completed decent high school programs in maths and physics and are concurrently taking subjects in the medical sciences. Additional chapters cover more advanced topics in this field. Our focus in this wikibook is the diagnostic application of Nuclear Medicine. Therapeutic applications are considered in a separate wikibook, "Radiation Oncology".
This book,"Blended Learning in K-12", is an overview of the concept of "blended learning" and how it relates to the integration of technologies in the K-12 environment. Dr. N.I. Scagnoli, the course instructor, has guided the students of the CTER 7 cohort in the creation of this book. This could not have happened in the 1980s. (By way of explanation to non-Americans, K-12 means all primary and secondary schooling).
Blender 3D: Noob to Pro is a product of shared effort by numerous team members and anonymous editors. Its purpose is to teach people how to create three-dimensional computer graphics using Blender, a free software application. This book is intended to be used in conjunction with other on-line resources that complement it.
C is the most commonly used programming language for writing operating systems. The first operating system written in C is Unix. Later operating systems like GNU/Linux were all written in C. Not only is C the language of operating systems, it is the precursor and inspiration for almost all of the most popular high-level languages available today. In fact, Perl, PHP, Python and Ruby are all written in C. By way of analogy, let's say that you were going to be learning Spanish, Italian, French, or Portuguese. Do you think knowing Latin would be helpful? Just as Latin was the basis of all of those languages, knowing C will enable you to understand and appreciate an entire family of programming languages built upon the traditions of C. Knowledge of C enables freedom.
Although C# is derived from the C programming language, it introduces some unique and powerful features, such as delegates (which can be viewed as type-safe function pointers) and lambda expressions which introduce elements of functional programming languages, as well as a simpler single class inheritance model (than C++) and, for those of you with experience in "C-like" languages, a very familiar syntax that may help beginners become proficient faster than its predecessors. Similar to Java, it is object-oriented, comes with an extensive class library, and supports exception handling, multiple types of polymorphism, and separation of interfaces from implementations. Those features, combined with its powerful development tools, multi-platform support, and generics, make C# a good choice for many types of software development projects: rapid application development projects, projects implemented by individuals or large or small teams, Internet applications, and projects with strict reliability requirements. Testing frameworks such as NUnit make C# amenable to test-driven development and thus a good language for use with Extreme Programming (XP). Its strong typing helps to prevent many programming errors that are common in weakly typed languages.
Welcome to the Chinese wikibook, a free Chinese textbook on the Standard Mandarin dialect. This page links to lessons using simplified characters (used in mainland China, Singapore and Malaysia). There is also a Traditional Character Version available (used in Taiwan, Macau, and Hong Kong).
Cognitive Psychology is a psychological science which is interested in various mind and brain related subfields such as cognition, the mental processes that underlie behavior, reasoning and decision making.
Everyone has their own view of the nature of consciousness based on their education and background. The intention of this book is to expand this view by providing an insight into the various ideas and beliefs on the subject as well as a review of current work in neuroscience. The neuroscientist should find the philosophical discussion interesting because this provides first-person insights into the nature of consciousness and also provides some subtle arguments about why consciousness is not a simple problem. The student of philosophy will find a useful introduction to the subject and information about neuroscience and physics that is difficult to acquire elsewhere.
Control Systems is an inter-disciplinary engineering text that analyzes the effects and interactions of mathematical systems. This book is for third and fourth year undergraduates in an engineering program.
This webpage provides over 20 basic conversational phrases and terms, all of which are used in most everyday discussions across the Arabic-speaking world. The terms and phrases are presented in transliterated form with English translation; no Arabic script is used.
One of the many challenges facing the countries in the Asia-Pacific today is preparing their societies and governments for globalization and the information and communication revolution. Policy-makers, business executives, NGO activists, academics, and ordinary citizens are increasingly concerned with the need to make their societies competitive in the emergent information economy.
The e-ASEAN Task Force and the UNDP Asia Pacific Development Information Programme (UNDP-APDIP) share the belief that with enabling information and communication technologies (ICTs), countries can face the challenge of the information age. With ICTs they can leap forth to higher levels of social, economic and political development. We hope that in making this leap, policy and decision-makers, planners, researchers, development practitioners, opinion-makers, and others will find this series of e-primers on the information economy, society, and polity useful.
This style guide is an introductory wikibook for beginners who want to produce political messages in various media formats. It is not a rule book; rather, it is a set of guidelines to facilitate effective political communication. Its purpose is to bridge the gap between two distinct styles to create pragmatic, clear, and useful information to establish a consistent tone, style, and format between all of the messages you or your organization produces.
It is meant as a practical guide for anyone, regardless of political affiliation, and it is organized in such a way that a person new to political communication can learn to create convincing and thought-provoking op-eds, letters to the editor, press releases, social media posts, website content, and spoken messages.
This project discovers the history of Modern Europe, starting at the Hundred Years War and ending at the present time.
A chronological perspective of history is attempted within this text. Although this is the case, it is also important to understand patterns within European History, therefore chapters will attempt to cover a breadth of material even though their titles might be that of a specific pattern in history rather than a time period.
This book covers in depth all topics required for a standard first aid course, and also includes a section on advanced topics. The basics covered include: Primary assessment and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); Legal aspects of first aid, including negligence and consent; Circulatory emergencies, such as bleeding, heart attack and stroke; Respiratory emergencies, such as asthma and anaphylactic shock; Internal injuries, such as broken bones, chest injuries, and internal bleeding; Burns, seizures and other medical conditions.
This book is aimed at undergraduate civil engineering students, though the material may provide a useful review for practitioners and graduate students in transportation. Typically, this would be for an Introduction to Transportation course, which might be taken by most students in their sophomore or junior year. Often this is the first engineering course students take, which requires a switch in thinking from simply solving given problems to formulating the problem mathematically before solving it, i.e. from straight-forward calculation often found in undergraduate Calculus to vaguer word problems more reflective of the real world.
The word biology means, "the science of life", from the Greek bios, life, and logos, word or knowledge. Therefore, Biology is the science of Living Things. That is why Biology is sometimes known as Life Science.
Wikibooks is a collaborative book authoring website, where users from all over the world work together to write textbooks and other types of instructional books on many topics. It is a Wikimedia project, operated by the same group of people who run Wikipedia, the Wikimedia Foundation. You can edit this page, and almost all pages like it, at any time. That is the basic principle of Wikibooks: anyone can edit it.
The modern human experience places a large emphasis upon the material world. From the day of our birth to the day we die, we are frequently preoccupied with the world around us. Whether struggling to feed ourselves, occupying ourselves with modern inventions, interacting with other people or animals, or simply meditating on the air we breathe, our attention is focused on different aspects of the material world. In fact only a handful of disciplines—certain subsets of religion, philosophy, and abstract math—can be considered completely unrelated to the material world. Everything else is somehow related to chemistry, the scientific discipline which studies the properties, composition, and transformation of matter.
In this book we aim to introduce you both to the Haskell language, from the very basics to advanced features, and to computer programming in general. We urge seasoned programmers to be especially patient with this process. In all likelihood, the languages you are most familiar with differ greatly from Haskell, and habits from those languages might make it more difficult to understand how things work − they are simple, but different. Face learning to see the world through the warped mindset of a functional programmer as an adventure in a brave new world, which will bring you understanding valuable far beyond the boundaries of any language.
This online textbook is intended for, but not limited to, 14 to 18 year old teenagers who have a general interest in mathematics. The text's language is aimed at high school students without a rigorous understanding and knowledge of university-level mathematics.
This book introduces several interesting topics not covered in the standard high school curriculum of most countries.
The materials presented can be challenging, but at the same time, we strive to make this book readable to all with 9–10 years of formal education.
Geology can roughly be divided into physical geology, which studies the materials of the Earth and the processes operating in it, and historical geology, which aims at a reconstruction of the history of the Earth. Historical geology requires some knowledge of physical geology for its elucidation. (Imagine, by way of analogy, forensic scientists diagnosing cause of death as a gunshot wound, which is a historical question. It would obviously be necessary for them to know something about the behavior of guns, which would be a physical question.) However, the aim of historical geology is to understand the past, and knowledge of physical geology is merely an adjunct to this aim.
Building a computer can be a very rewarding experience. Since you’re reading this, you’re probably thinking about building your next computer instead of buying one pre-built. This is a very viable option these days and can bring many benefits; you can learn a lot about computer hardware by building one, you get a totally personalized computer, you can choose better components and you may be able to save some money and have fun. Additionally, if you are the sort of person who wants to understand how things work, if you take broken stuff apart just to see how it all fits together, if you have a drawer somewhere full of “parts” you think may come in handy someday, then you just may be in the right place.
Physiology The word physiology is from the Ancient Greek φυσιολογία (phusiología, "natural philosophy") and it is the study of how organisms perform their vital functions. An example is the study of how a muscle contracts or the force contracting muscles exert on the skeleton. It was introduced by French physician Jean Fernery in 1552. Physiology is built upon a tripod of sciences: physics, chemistry, and anatomy.
This is a guide to HTML, a standard markup language for web pages. A text editor and a web browser is all you need to create web pages, view your handiwork, and share information with others all over the world.
This webpage lists intermediate-level conversational phrases and terms. The terms are listed in Arabic, transliteration, and English translation. The more difficult terms are presented with brief commentary to supply context. The listed terms and phrases include words conducive to beginning and sustaining fairly complex and wide-ranging conversations.
Dear student! You are starting to learn about computation and its purpose. This course covers the same materials as an introductory class for undergraduate computer science majors. Its curriculum, which includes software, hardware and algorithms, resembles that of a one- or two-semester first-year college course or the high school Advanced Placement (AP) Computer Science. It does not require a formal computer science background.
Library and Information Science (LIS) is the academic and professional study of how information and information carriers are produced, disseminated, discovered, evaluated, selected, acquired, used, organized, maintained, and managed. This book intends to introduce the reader to fundamental concerns and emerging conversations in the field of library and information science.
A secondary goal of this book is to introduce readers to prominent writers, articles, and books within the field of library science. The book originated as a collection of annotations of important LIS articles. Though these citations are being developed into a fuller text, we hope that this book remains firmly rooted in the literature of LIS and related fields, and helps direct readers toward important resources when a particular topic strikes their fancy.
Introduction to Paleoanthropology covers the various species and subspecies that gave rise to human beings. Paleoanthropology is a subdiscipline of physical anthropology that focuses on the fossil record of humans and non-human primates.
Sociology is the study of human social life. Human social life is complex and encompasses many facets of the human experience. Because of the complexity, the discipline of sociology subdivided over time into specialty areas. The first section of this book covers the foundations of sociology, including an introduction to the discipline, the methods of study, and some of the dominant theoretical perspectives. The remaining chapters focus on the different areas of study in sociology.
Introduction to Sociology is a featured book on Wikibooks because it contains substantial content, it is well-formatted, and the Wikibooks community has decided to feature it on the main page or in other places. Note: See "Instructor Resources" to find a list of Course Adoptions and accompanying PPTs.
Knoppix is an astoundingly clever product. It runs Linux completely from a CD or DVD. There is no need to install. It bypasses all the software already installed on your PC or laptop and automatically detects the hardware in your computer (subject to suitable hardware). When you've finished using Knoppix, simply restart. Your computer will return to your regular system, and it will behave as if nothing has happened. Knoppix is Free Software and open source under the terms of the GNU General Public Licence (GPL).
TeX is a computer program for typesetting documents, created by Donald Knuth. It takes a suitably prepared computer file and converts it to a form which may be printed on many kinds of printers, including dot-matrix printers, laser printers and high-resolution typesetting machines. LaTeX is a set of macros for TeX that aims at reducing the user's task to the sole role of writing the content, LaTeX taking care of all the formatting process. A number of well-established publishers now use TeX or LaTeX to typeset books and mathematical journals. It is also well appreciated by users caring about typography, consistent formatting, efficient collaborative writing and open formats.This is a guide to the LaTeX markup language. It is intended to form a useful resource for everybody from new users who wish to learn, to old hands who need a quick reference.
This is an elementary Latin course accompanied with a detailed grammar based upon Kennedy's Public School Latin Grammar designed to introduce one to the world of classical languages. A basic understanding of grammatical terminology would be helpful; however, it is not required. Basic definitions of terms will be explained in Lessons 1 and 2, and later elaborated as needed.
It is often remarked that groups are everywhere, whether in our social lives, our work lives, or even our families. In each of these situations, sets of individuals decide to work collectively to achieve particular goals.
However, although groups are everywhere and we participate in them constantly, we do not understand them very well. Many of us can tell stories of groups that seemed perfect for a given task, but which failed. And we all have reasons (or excuses) that explain such failures.
But our experiences in groups suffer precisely because we are with them.
The study of groups as a phenomenon that is unique and different from other social phenomena is very active, reflecting both the importance it has and how much we still don't know about groups.
Miskitu Aisas! ("Speak Miskito!"), a language course in Wikibooks, is an elementary introduction to the Miskito language, spoken in parts of Nicaragua and Honduras. The course focuses primarily on presenting the grammar basics through carefully graded and didactically presented lessons. Miskitu Aisas! assumes no prior knowledge of the language and no specialised knowledge of linguistics, although at least a general background in "school grammar" will no doubt be helpful, as will any previous experience at learning foreign languages.
A concise approach to New Zealand History, this textbook covers the first inhabitants, the Maori, the discovery of New Zealand by the Europeans and some of the significant events that have led up to the way the country is in the present day.
The Non-Programmers' Tutorial For Python is a tutorial designed to be an introduction to the Python programming language. This guide is for someone with no programming experience.
The Open Content Photography Program is being built to help people to learn professional photography. It is not a book about photography, it's a book about learning photography on your own.
This webpage lists several, commonly used Arabic phrases to express greetings and emotions in ways considered polite and proper in many Arabic-speaking settings and contexts. The words include Arabic script, English translation, and English transliteration. Brief commentary is adduced when necessary in order to explain context.
Political Economists are concerned with the allocation of scarce resources in a world of infinite wants and needs. In order to allocate these resources, politics are used within a state to provide for the people. Political economy is the study of the relationships between individuals and society, and more specifically, the relationships between citizens and states.
Political economy is a study of philosophy and ideology that studies the evolution of political and economic ideas. Political economy is a mixture of politics, economics, sociology, philosophy, and history, which all bring together evidence to the study of how humans exist within societies. Political economists study political ideology, economic structure, human interaction, human nature, and theories in philosophical thought. It is a study that studies not only the mechanics of a particular structure, but also the reasoning behind why a structure is regarded to be the best by various people with different beliefs.
The study of political economics can be split into two different sections, one which is Classical Political Economy and the other which is Modern Political Economy. The classical branch studies range from the conservative philosophers such as Machiavelli to liberals such as Adam Smith to the critiquers of liberalism such as Marx. The modern branch studies range from social liberals such as Keynes to modern political economists whose works deal with a multitude of issues including foreign trade and globalization.
The goal of proteomics is to analyze the varying proteomes of an organism at different times, in order to highlight differences between them. Put more simply, proteomics analyzes the structure and function of biological systems.  For example, the protein content of a cancerous cell is often different from that of a healthy cell. Certain proteins in the cancerous cell may not be present in the healthy cell, making these unique proteins good targets for anti-cancer drugs. The realization of this goal is difficult; both purification and identification of proteins in any organism can be hindered by a multitude of biological and environmental factors. 
Radiation Oncology is a rapidly changing field with new advances being made daily. As a consequence, any textbook becomes out-of-date almost immediately after it is published. Thus, the WikiBook format is ideal for a textbook of radiation oncology, as updates can be made constantly as new information becomes available.
Designed for use as a textbook in first-year college composition programs, written as a practical guide for students struggling to bring their writing up to the level expected of them by their professors and instructors.
This Wikibook aims to teach the Spanish language from scratch. It will cover all of the major grammar rules, moving slowly and offering exercises and plenty of examples. It's not all grammar though, as it offers vocabulary and phrases too, appealing to all learners. By the end, you should be able to read and write Spanish skilfully, though you'll need a human to help with listening and speaking.
The Special Theory of Relativity is a theory of classical physics that was developed at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. It changed our understanding of older physical theories such as Newtonian Physics and led to early Quantum Theory and later the Theory of General Relativity. Special Relativity is one of the foundation blocks of physics.
This book will introduce the reader to, perhaps, the most profound discovery of the twentieth century and the modern world: the universe has at least four dimensions.
Transportation Economics is aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate civil engineering, planning, business, and economics students, though the material may provide a useful review for practitioners. While incorporating theory, there is a very applied bent to the course, as all the ideas covered are intended to help inform the real decisions that are made (or should be made) in practice.
This brief list provides seven contemporary professions and careers in Arabic and translated English. The words are also accompanied by transliteration, and are written in masculine and feminine form.
This page presents a very basic and brief description of some of the most fundamental aspects of Arabic grammar, including noun gender, word order, verb conjugation, and the most common pronouns. The page covers the parts of speech and provides examples in English and Arabic.
This appendix is a compilation of various lists of words and phrases, some of which are quite brief, and some of which, like the "useful words" list, are quite extensive. Some of the materials rely on transliteration alone and therefore require no knowledge of Arabic script while others are written in Arabic. The word lists are focused on common words such as professions, greetings, common expressions, and also include a fictional dialogue of two people greeting each other.