Author:
#GoOpenVA Administrator
Subject:
History/Social Sciences
Material Type:
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Level:
Upper Primary
Tags:
Curated-links, Virginia Studies, Woodson Collaborative
License:
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial
Language:
English
Media Formats:
Downloadable docs, Text/HTML

Education Standards

Curated Links for Virginia Studies

Overview

The online resources featured below were curated by the Dr. Carter G. Woodson Collaborative in order to support the approved edits to the SOL curriculum framework made by the Governor’s Commission on African American History Education. The SOL standard and the approved edits appear in the first two columns of the spreadsheet followed by correlating links and a contextual overview of each resource. The final column identifies each link as open educational resources (OER) vs. copyrighted materials that cannot be edited. As there are few resources that are entirely free of cultural bias, we suggest that you refer to the Collaborative’s Support and Guidance in Selecting and Enacting Resources document in order to consider how these materials can best be utilized.

  

The online resources featured below were curated by the Dr. Carter G. Woodson Collaborative in order to support the approved edits to the SOL curriculum framework made by the Governor’s Commission on African American History Education. The SOL standard and the approved edits appear in the first two columns of the spreadsheet followed by correlating links and a contextual overview of each resource. The final column identifies each link as open educational resources (OER) vs. copyrighted materials that cannot be edited. As there are few resources that are entirely free of cultural bias, we suggest that you refer to the Collaborative’s Support and Guidance in Selecting and Enacting Resources document in order to consider how these materials can best be utilized.

 

SOL

APPROVED CHANGE

RESOURCES

OVERVIEW

LICENSING  

VS.1d

Experiences may include but are not limited to the following:

  • Respond to guiding questions to help in understanding multiple perspectives of people from diverse backgrounds:

Project Zero Thinking Routines including Circle of Viewpoints and Step In, Step Out, Step Back

Thinking routines support student learning and thinking across age groups, disciplines, ideals, competencies, and populations. Circle of Viewpoints helps students see and explore multiple perspectives. Step In, Step Out, Step Back encourages a respectful approach to perspective taking that avoids building stereotypes of others or projecting our own values and beliefs onto others.

 

Copyrighted

 

Location Search to learn about significant Virginians around the state.

 

Virginia Changemakers and the Dictionary of Virginia Biography (DVB) can be searched by location to learn about significant Virginians around the state.

 

OER

VS.2g

American Indians and their culture were greatly affected by white European colonization.  They intermingled with the English and Africans. 

The Impact of Words and Native Knowledge 360 Essential Understandings (Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian)

 

These teacher-facing resources from the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian offer guidance on key concepts, historical context, and language to support meaningful teaching and learning about indigenous people.

Copyrighted

NK360: National Museum of the American Indian, Words Matter Case Study

The Words Matter Case Study explores the ways in which words like “discovery” and “civilized” were important for establishing legal relationships with American Indian Nations and reveal important underlying values, beliefs, and attitudes. Native students share their thinking about these words and their historical context in short videos.

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

NK360: National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI): Nation to Nation Overview Video

The Nation to Nation overview video was produced as part of the NMAI exhibition "Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations," and helps build understanding of the ways in which treaties between Native nations and the United States have had enormous, incalculable, and permanent effects on the lands, cultures, and populations of Native America.

 

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

Early map of Virginia depicting paramount chief Powhatan

 

This early map of Virginia dates to the early seventeenth century and represents, from a European perspective, the geography and population of the Tidewater region just after the English arrived.

OER

 

Political cartoon - the Jamestown Exposition of 1907

While this political cartoon originates outside of the era that this unit addresses, it could be a valuable resource for understanding Indigenous perceptions and reactions to the growing European/American presence.

 

OER

 

Primary Source Collection: The Columbian Exchange

“This primary source set explores positive and negative consequences of this great shift, showing both instances of exchange and resulting instances of cultural, political, ecological, and biological imperialism.”

 

OER

Primary Source Set: Powhatan People and the English at Jamestown

This set of primary sources provides insight on the conquest of the Americas between the 15th and 17th centuries. All primary source set pages from the Digital Public Library of America are accompanied by a list of additional related resources as well as a teaching guide, which provides useful guidance for the instructional approach.

 

OER

Primary Source Set: Exploration of the Americas

Opossunoquonuske (Appamattuck leader) entry in Changemakers; Cockacoeske (Pamunkey leader) entry in Changemakers; Ann (Pamunkey leader) entry in Changemakers

Biographies with primary sources.

 

OER

 

VS.3e

Essential Understandings

 

This is the first time that Africans were introduced to the Virginia colony and became a permanent part of Virginia's population.

 

Virginia became a more diverse colony by 1620.

 

Encyclopedia Virginia: Virginia’s First Africans and Angela

Encyclopedia Virginia provides two articles that offer background knowledge for teachers as well as primary sources for possible use with students supporting an understanding of the first Africans who were forcibly brought to Virginia.

 

OER (text only; non-text may be copyrighted)

 

VS.3e

Essential Knowledge
Portuguese sailors captured African men and women from what is present-day Angola. The legal status of these early African men and women as either servants or enslaved persons once they arrived in Virginia is unknown.

 

Africans arrived in Virginia against their will in 1619.

The first Africans who were forcibly brought to Old Point Comfort were originally free people who were captured by Portuguese soldiers by hired mercenaries in an Angolian region of West Central Africa.   

 

With the forced arrival of these Africans, Virginia would create a system of people treated as property based on their skin color. 

 

The arrival of Africans made it possible to expand the tobacco economy.The Virginia Colony’s economy was greatly dependent upon temporary and permanent servitude. 

 

In these early years, Virginia would create a disparity between English colonists and Africans.

 

The arrival of additional English women in 1620 made it possible for more settlers to start families, which helped to establish Jamestown as a permanent colony in Virginia.

 

Resources shared on Teaching Hard History podcast, including The Role of Virginians in the Founding of the New Nation

 

Teaching Hard History podcast includes resources shared by Fairfax County Public Schools, including The Role of Virginians… which uses primary sources and thinking routines to foster perspective-taking and build understanding about liberty and slavery at the nation’s founding.

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

Learning for Justice resources for teachers, including the Teaching Hard History Framework for Teaching American Slavery and Tongue-Tied – Tips for teaching about slavery

 

The Learning for Justice resources provide guidance and key concepts for teaching about the history of enslavement.

 

Copyrighted

Freedom’s Fortress (and at #GoOpenVA

Freedom’s Fortress is a learning experience about the history of Point Comfort and Fort Monroe, focusing on the arrival of the first Africans forcibly brought to Virginia in 1619 and moving into the Civil War history of the site. It includes videos, primary sources, and assessments that can be adapted for younger learners.

OER

Historical Foundations of Race (National Museum for African American History and Culture)

The Historical Foundations of Race resource from the National Museum for African American History and Culture takes a deep dive into the invention of race as a social construction, including its history in colonial America as a tool to codify and conserve the hierarchical social order.

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

VS.3e

With the forced arrival of these Africans, Virginia would create a system of people treated as property based on their skin color. 

 

.The Virginia Colony’s economy was greatly dependent upon temporary and permanent servitude. 

 

In these early years, Virginia would create a disparity between English colonists and Africans.

 

If Knowledge is the Key” (Full episode, 11:07)

 

Basic lesson plan for “If Knowledge is the Key”

Self-Evident Education (www.selfevidentmedia.com/curriculum) provides digital resources to teach about the coodifying of race in law, which allowed Virginian colonists to continue profiting from an economic system built on enslaved servitude.

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

VS.4a

The Virginia Colony turned to enslaved labor to make money and expand their resources.  This dependence lasted for more than two hundred years, until the end of the Civil War.  For this reason, African men, women, and children were forcibly brought to the Virginia colony and enslaved to work on the plantations. The Virginia colony became dependent on slave labor, and this dependence lasted a long time.

Virtual Curation Lab: Cowrie Shell

 

 

 

This link features the shell of a cowrie, a marine snail native to the east coast of Africa and regions in the Pacific, which was unearthed during archaeological excavations of a slave quarter at George Mason's Gunston Hall in Fairfax County. This artifact can help students uncover the ways in which enslaved Africans retained and adapted their diverse African cultures during and after enslavement.

OER (text only; non-text may be copyrighted

Enslaved Labor: George Washington’s Mount Vernon

Enslaved Labor explores the work enslaved people did at Mount Vernon: agricultural labor, butlers, cooks, maids, waiters, and specific trades. Resources include research-based explorations of daily life for specific enslaved people, deep dives into particular sites of work, and a “biographies” section that emphasizes the human stories of slavery at Mount Vernon.

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

Slavery: Monticello

 Monticello features many resources, including a short video exploring the enslaved people who worked at Mulberry Row, an account of six enslaved families of Monticello, a deep dive into life at the Monticello plantation, histories of specific people enslaved at Monticello,  and a short video documenting the stories of the descendents of Monticello’s African American community.

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

Blog entry about the Tobacco trade (18th Century)

 

Blog post with context and primary sources on the tobacco trade in the 18th century.

OER

VS.4e

Most eEnslaved Africans Americans worked tobacco, other crops, livestock, in industries including shipping, construction, and other trades. Africans came to America with prior knowledge of skilled trades.

Enslaved Africans Americans were denied basic rights.

Some free Africans Americans  in America owned land but were denied basic rights.

Africans began to have families born in America increasing their population.

Life under Slavery: George Washington’s Mount Vernon

Life under Slavery curates resources exploring the lives, labor, and culture of the diverse Africans and African Americans enslaved at Monticello.

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

Slave Narratives: Constructing U.S. History through Analyzing Primary Sources

Slave Narratives learning experience overview from EDSITEment:  “In these activities, students research narratives from the Federal Writers' Project and describe the lives of former African slaves in the U.S. -- both before and after emancipation. From varied stories, students sample the breadth of individual experiences, make generalizations about the effects of slavery and Reconstruction on African Americans, and evaluate primary source documents.”

 

OER

Primary sources (artifacts and texts) about slavery and freedom in Virginia from the Smithsonian, including:

 

Albumen print of enslaved women and children near Alexandria, VA

 

Joseph Trammell’s Freedom Papers

 

Sadiron from Deltaville, VA

 

Printed floral skirt worn by Lucy Lee Shirley

 

List of enslaved people and yards of cloth

 

Nat Turner’s Bible

 

Dress made by unidentified enslaved woman

 

List of men, women, and children owned by E. Westmore

 

Estate sale broadside

 

Iron cooking pot hook

 

Primary sources about slavery and freedom in Virginia come from Smithsonian Open Access and include photographs of enslaved people, clothing worn or made by enslaved women, tools and objects related to labor, and written records of slavery.

 

All these listed are OER; Smithsonian includes both copyrighted and OER resources so each must be examined separately; or use https://www.si.edu/openaccess/ to find only OER

Primary Source Set: The Transatlantic Slave Trade

 

“This primary source set includes documents, photographs, artwork, and maps that help to tell the story of the slave trade and its impact.”

 

OER

 

Primary Source Collection: Slave Resistance (Google Arts and Culture, Gilder Lehrman).

This Google Arts and Culture collection of primary sources includes photographs, documents, paintings, and more. The focus of this collection emphasizes the resistance to slavery, an empowering narrative that provides humanizing dimensions to students’ understanding of American slavery.

 

Copyrighted (per the contributor Gilder Lehrman Museum)

3-D Artifacts

The Virtual Curation Laboratory at Virginia Commonwealth University has scanned a variety of cultural objects related African American history, available in this collection.

Mix of OER and copyrighted  (If it's downloadable, it falls under public use as institutions have given permission.)

 

Slave dwellings documentary

 

Justin Reid, Director of African American programs, and Peter Hedlund, Director of Encyclopedia Virginia—both of the state humanities council Virginia Humanities—talk about documenting slave dwellings using Google Street View.

 

Copyrighted

 

VS.5b

Varied experiences roles of American Indians, whites, enslaved African Americans, and free African Americans in the Revolutionary War era

 

Contributions of Virginians during the Revolutionary War era

  • James Lafayette, an enslaved African American from Virginia, served as a spy in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. James Lafayette then had to fight for his freedom and won his freedom many years after the war, He successfully requested his freedom after the war with the support of the Marquis de Lafayette.

 

Resources shared on Teaching Hard History podcast, including the Colonial Virginia learning experiences

 

 

 

The Teaching Hard History podcast includes resources shared by Fairfax County Public Schools, including the Colonial Virginia learning experiences, which explore data and two paintings of formerly enslaved people (Yarrow Mamout and Emily Sims Motley) to present some macro- and micro- histories of enslavement.

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

The Encyclopedia Virginia DVB entry of James Lafayette (published on EV); as well as his two petitions (Nov. 30, 1786 and and Dec. 28, 1818; scan of 1786 petition also in This Day)

Biographical sketch of James Lafayette as well as his two petitions.

 

OER

VS.5b

Varied experiences roles of American Indians, whites, enslaved African Americans, and free African Americans in the Revolutionary War era

 

“I Got a Letter from the Government”

(Full episode, 9:40)

Basic Lesson Plan for “I Got a Letter from the Government”

African Americans like Benjamin Banneker had little reason to believe that the American Revolutionary calls for liberty applied to them. Still they called for these universal ideas to be universally applied. Self-Evident Education (www.selfevidentmedia.com/curriculum) provides digital resources to teach about this history.

 

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

VS.6c

  • Many enslaved African Americans were sold to people who lived in other southern states and western territories, permanently separating many families by hundreds of miles.

Forced Migration interactive map

 

 

 

 

 

Forced Migration: This resource includes data and narratives representing the experiences of enslaved people from states - including Virginia - who were forcibly uprooted from their homes, separated from their loved ones, and marched and shipped across the South on railroads and steamships.

OER

 

To Be Sold: Interstate Slave Trade; Hector Davis DVB entry; Richard H. Dickinson DVB entry; 1865 Stephen Flemming letter to Gov Pierpont looking for family members; 1882 Jennie Brown letter to Mecklenburg Co sheriff looking for family members; multiple blog posts on the Domestic Slave Trade; LVA has a ledger book for Omohundro (Acc.29642)-[one page digitized here)

 

Online exhibition on the interstate slave trade, biographical sketches of slave traders, primary source letters from African Americans looking for family members, and mutiple blog posts with context and primary sources on the domestic slave trade.

 

OER

 

VS.7a

Essential Understandings

Cultural, economic, and constitutional differences between the North and the South based in slavery eventually resulted in the Civil War.               

Because of economic differences, tThe North and the South were unable to resolve their conflicts, and the South seceded from the United States.

Docsteach: 1860 Slavery Map of the United States

 

 

 

 

The 1860 Slavery Map of the United States is a learning experience in which students share their thinking about a zoomed-in detail of this primary source document and then explore the document as a whole, building understanding of the enslaved population of the American South in 1860.

 

OER

 

Primary Source Set: Secession of the Southern States

 “This primary source set uses documents, illustrations, and maps to explore events and ideas that drove the formation of the Confederate States of American and the United States’ descent into civil war.”

 

OER

Henry Box Brown entry in To Be Sold exhibition; Thomas Bayne DVB entry; Mark R. DeMortie DVB entry; Anthony Burns DVB entry and letter to Union Baptist Church, Fauquier Co (1855), printed in Charles Emery Stevens, Anthony Burns: A History (1856), 281–283 (copy at LVA) with this language: "God made me a man—not a slave; and gave me the same right to myself that he gave the man who stole me to himself." Kneebone, "A Break Down on the Underground Railroad: Captain B. and the Capture of the Keziah, 1858," Virginia Cavalcade 47 (1999):74-83

 

Biographical sketches with primary sources

 

OER

VS.7a

Differences between northern and southern states

  • The economy in the northern part of the United States was more industrialized, while the economy in the southern part was agricultural and relied more on slave labor.
  • Northern states wanted the new states created out of the western territories to be “free states,” while the southern states wanted the new states to be “slave states.”

Events leading to secession and war

  • Abolitionists, The Fugitive Slave Act and the Underground Railroad were all contributing factors to the Civil War because most white Southerners strongly believed they had the right to enslave free people.

Biographical sketches from blackpast.org, including: John P. Parker and Willis Hodges

 

 

 

 

 

These biographical sketches can be adapted for all learners to foster understanding of diverse African American experiences leading up to the Civil War, including the role of free and enslaved African Americans resisting the institution of slavery. John Parker, born enslaved in Virginia, became an inventor, businessman, and prominent Underground Railroad conductor reputedly responsible for the rescue of over 1,000 enslaved people before the Civil War. Willis Hodges was one of the most outspoken African American abolitionists in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

 

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

Oh Freedom! Fugitive Slave Act Primary Source Activity*

 

This activity implements a variety of Primary Sources in order to provide a humanistic understanding of the impact of the Fugitive Slave Act. This activity is rigorous and likely pitched a bit too high for 5th graders. However, modification and adaptations could be made to make this more accessible.

 

OER

Primary Source Set: John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry

 

“The primary sources in this set document John Brown’s raid and the broad range of responses it provoked across the country.”

 

OER

Primary Source Set: The Underground Railroad and the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

 

“This source set explores each man’s views and work to end slavery.”

OER

 

Primary Source Set: Frederick Douglass and Abraham Lincoln

 

This source set explores how Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglas worked to end slavery.

 

OER

Primary Source Set: The American Abolitionist Movement

 

This set highlights the contributions of different abolitionists, including activists, publishers and writers, politicians, and feminists. The accompanying related resources and teaching guide provide valuable prompts and procedures for analyzing and interpreting these sources.

 

OER

VS.7b

Major Civil War Events battles fought in Virginia

  • The Confederates were using slaves to help them in the war effort.  Three men (Shepherd Mallory, James Baker, and Frank Townsend) refused and escaped to Fort Monroe, this led to the Contraband decision, which led to tens of thousands of enslaved people to seek refuge with the Union Army. 

 

Freedom’s Fortress (and at #GoOpenVA)

 

 

Freedom’s Fortress is a learning experience about the history of Point Comfort and Fort Monroe, focusing on the arrival of the first Africans forcibly brought to Virginia in 1619 and moving into the Civil War history of the site. It includes videos, primary sources, and assessments that can be adapted for younger learners.

 

OER

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VS.7c

American Indians, whites, enslaved African Americans, and free African Americans had experienced the Civil War in different ways.   various roles during the Civil War.

Resources shared on Teaching Hard History podcast, including The Role of Virginians during the Civil War

 

 

 

 

The Teaching Hard History podcast includes resources shared by Fairfax County Public Schools, including The Role of Virginians… which uses primary sources and thinking routines to foster perspective-taking and build understanding about diverse Virginians’ experiences during the Civil War.

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

Lehman Ullman petition, 1861 (needs to be scanned); Caroline Brady Cook entry in Changemakers; James A. Fields DVB entry; Payroll of Slaves Employed by the Commonwealth, 1861 (see above); Fluvanna Co Appraisement of Slaves Sent to Labor on Fortifications, 1864 (Va Untold);

 

Biographical sketches and primary sources at Library of Virginia and Encyclopedia Virginia.

 

OER

 

“Seizing Freedom” walk through the White House of the Confederacy (American Civil War Museum)

The White House of the Confederacy was home to Jefferson Davis and his family during the Civil War. But it was a place where many others lived and worked. Join Joseph and Ana as they explore the lived experience of both the enslaved and free staff at the mansion on Clay Street.

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

VS.7c

Varied experiences roles of American Indians, whites, enslaved African Americans, and free African Americans during the Civil War

  • Many enslaved African Americans sought freedom by following the Union Army, where many found work. African American soldiers were paid less than white soldiers.
  • Clara Barton, a Civil War nurse, created the American Red Cross.  Harriet Tubman, an abolitionist and political activist, and conductor on the Underground Railroad. Elizabeth Van Lew, a Virginia abolitionist and spy for the Union Army.  Mary Bowser was an African American Union spy. 
  • Robert Smalls, an African American sailor and later a Union naval captain, was highly honored for his feats of bravery and heroism. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives after the war.

Photograph of African American and white Civil War soldiers standing outside Birch & Co. slave dealer

 

In this photograph from the National Museum of African American History and Culture, soldiers stand outside an Alexandria, VA slave trader’s office. The photograph was taken by Mathew Brady in 1861.

OER

Previously unknown portraits of Harriet Tubman (National Museum of African American History and Culture)

This album of previously unknown portraits of Harriet Tubman adds nuance to the dominant narrative of Tubman’s life and contributions to history.

OER

Harriet Tubman (see also https://goopenva.org/courses/nah-harriet-tubman)

The New American Learning Resource on Harriet Tubman supports students in enacting a critical lens toward representations of Harriet Tubman in history texts.

 

OER

 

Library of Congress Primary Source Set: African American Women Changemakers

 

Library of Congress African American Women Changemakers includes a portrait of Harriet Tubman alongside portraits of other African American women changemakers spanning multiple centuries.

 

OER

Comparing Civil War Recruitment Posters

 

Black Soldiers in the Civil War

 

This National Archives activity features a recruitment poster that was used to recruit recently emancipated African American men to fight for the Union.

OER

“Civil War to Civil Rights: Military” Educator Resource (American Civil War Museum)

Similarly to the “Black Soldiers in the Civil War” activity, this activity from the National Archives asks students to compare and contrast two different recruitment posters in order to build an understanding of the various experiences of  African Americans during the Civil War.

 

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

Juneteenth General Order*

 

 

This activity asks students to analyze a document announcing the emancipation of all enslaved African Americans. This is not entirely aligned to the VA Studies objectives, but is worth consideration as Virginia recently declared Juneteenth a state holiday.

 

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

 

“United States Colored Troops” Educator Resource (American Civil War Museum)

Explore the various ways African American people–enslaved and free, forced or by choice–contributed to the war effort. Using images and letters, delve into the lives of real people who were part of the Civil War.

 

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

American Civil War Museum has done a lot of research and focus on Van Lew and Bowser

 

DVB entry for Elizabeth Van Lew; Van Lew Papers (including post-war letter from Mary Richards Bowser). Virginia-born USCT include William Carney, Peter Jacob Carter (who later served in G.A.), and Joseph T. Wilson (who wrote a book on African American military service in U.S. wars)

Examine the role and experiences of the United States Colored Troops (USCTs).

OER

VS.8a

Problems faced by Virginians during Reconstruction

  • African Americans faced injustice, increased violence, and discrimination immediately after the end of slavery.

Measures taken to resolve problems

  • Sharecropping was a system with unfair practices that locked people into poverty.  Sharecropping was common in Virginia after the war;,  in which freedmen and poor white farmers rented land from landowners by promising to pay the owners with a share of the crops.
  • African Americans pushed for education for their children.  This directly resulted in Freedom’s First Generation of who some became doctors, lawyers, and teachers.  African Americans saw education as a path to greater opportunities.  Despite the obstacles they faced, many African Americans achieved excellence.

Reconstruction video

Facing History Document collection for teaching Reconstruction.

 

 

Copyrighted (requires free login to access some materials)

 

Reconstruction video

Facing History video series for teaching Reconstruction.

 

Copyrighted (requires free login to access some materials)

5E Lesson on Reconstruction from New American History

New American History learning experience with primary sources exploring Reconstruction through the conceptual lens of freedom and its legacy today.

 

OER

Jacob Yoder and Educating Freedmen blog; Remaking Virginia: Freedmen's Bureau; Remaking Virginia: Labor; A New Labor System blog; Remaking Virginia: Education; Remaking Virginia: Higher Education; Remaking Virginia: Violence; DVB and Changemakers have many entries on successful African Americans, including lawyer Robert Peel Brooks, teacher Rosa Dixon Bowser, poet D. Webster Davis, banker Maggie L. Walker, editor John Mitchell Jr., legislator James A. Fields, physician Sarah G. Jones, school founder Jennie Dean, minister Israel Lafayette Butt, etc.

 

 

Online exhibition on Reconstruction in Virginia; blog entries with context and primary sources.

OER

Educator Resource on “The 14th Amendment and Birthright Citizenship” (American Civil War Museum)

 

In July 1868, the ideas of African American activists transformed the terms of citizenship for all Americans with the adoption of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Discover the origins of universal citizenship for people born in the U.S. and how that birthright principle continues to impact national conversations about citizenship 150 years later.

 

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

Educator Resource on “Civil War to Civil Rights: Rights” (American Civil War Museum)

 

Explore how constitutional amendments conflicted with reality for African American people following the Civil War, giving rise to the Civil Rights Movement a century after emancipation. How did people of color fight for equal rights, and in what ways did systemic oppression keep them from achieving rights in reality?

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

Educator Resource on “Civil War to Civil Rights: Education” (American Civil War Museum)

 

Explore the history of African American education through the stories of several Virginia educators. How did emancipation affect education? How have people fought for equal access to education in the United States?

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

Educator Resource on “Civil War to Civil Rights” (American Civil War Museum)

 

How did life change for formerly enslaved people after emancipation? How did it stay the same?

 

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

“Walk Through the War: 1865 – Legacies of the War” video (American Civil War Museum)

The conflict wasn't over after the war in 1865. How do Americans reconcile the weight and cost of the war while trying to reunify the nation?

 

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

Educator Resource on “Civil War to Civil Rights: Families” (American Civil War Museum)

Through infographics and newspaper clippings, explore the role that family and kinship ties played in helping enslaved people resist the dehumanization of slavery, as well as what challenges people faced with finding and rebuilding their families after emancipation.

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

VS.8b

During Reconstruction, African Americans began to have power in Virginia’s government, and black and white men could vote and hold office.  Black Virginians led the fight for the first public school system in Virginia. 

-John Mercer Langston was an important African American leader before, during, and after the Civil War

  • Free black from Louisa County, Virginia who was educated in Ohio and became a lawyer in the North
  • Abolitionist who participated in the Underground Railroad in Ohio
  • Recruited black volunteers to serve as soldiers in the Union Army during the Civil War
  • Returned to Virginia after the Civil War and became the President of a new black college in Petersburg later known as “Virginia State University"
  • First African American elected to the U.S. Congress from Virginia

John Mercer Langston entry in Encyclopedia Virginia

John Mercer Langston entry at Encyclopedia Virginia provides a short biography and primary sources teachers can adapt for use with students.

 

OER (text only; non-text may be copyrighted)

African Americans and Politics in Virginia, 1865-1902 in Encyclopedia Virginia

 

African Americans and Politics in Virginia provides an overview with primary source documents of African American involvement in Virginia politics as voters and officeholders, as well as the white supremacist laws and practices enacted to disenfranchise African Americans in Virginia.

 

OER (text only; non-text may be copyrighted)

 

Primary Source Set: The Freedmen’s Bureau

 

“This collection of documents, images, and readings from the era give an overview of the work done by the Freedmen’s Bureau and the racial and political struggles the agency faced during the Reconstruction Era.”

 

OER

Primary Source Set: The 15th Amendment

 

“The documents, images, photographs, and articles in this set explore the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment, responses to it across the United States, and its long-term impact on the struggle for equal voting rights.”

OER

Remaking Virginia: Voting; Remaking Virginia: African Americans Vote; Virginia Constitution (ratified 1869); John Mercer Langston DVB entry; DVB entries for multiple 1867-1868 convention members and legislators - links can be found at MLK Commission website

 

Online exhibition on Reconstruction in Virginia; blog entries on the first black legislators in Virginia.

OER

VS.8b

After Reconstruction, these gains were taken away through violence, intimidation, and  lost when “Jim Crow” laws were passed by southern states. “Jim Crow” laws legally established segregation, or separation of the races, and reinforced prejudices held by whites.

School Interrupted

 

 

 

School Interrupted is a New American History learning experience exploring the role of African American teenagers, including leader Barbara Johns, in desegregating America’s schools.

 

OER

Educating for Democracy: Elementary School Profiles of Resistance

 

Created by the University of Virginia, Educating for Democracy offers dozens of short biographies written for elementary learners highlighting people who have resisted injustice throughout history.

 

Copyrighted (can be linked within a  lesson plan with the language “The following content is copyrighted and may not be edited”)

 

Primary Source Set: Ida B. Wells and Anti-Lynching Activism

“The documents and images in this primary source set follow the development of Ida B. Wells’ career as a journalist and activist and also represent the practice of lynching that she dedicated her career to fighting against.”

 

OER

UnCommonWealth (Library of Virginia blog)

Blog post with primary sources.

 

OER

 

  By the Dr. Carter G. Woodson Collaborative, 2021