 Author:
 VDOE Project Team, Elizabeth Schenkel
 Subject:
 ESL, English Language Development (ELD)
 Material Type:
 Lesson Plan
 Level:
 Upper Primary
 Grade:
 3
 Provider:
 Virginia Department of Education
 Tags:
 License:
 Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial
 Language:
 English
 Media Formats:
 Downloadable docs, Text/HTML
Education Standards
3.9 Equivalent Periods of Time
Overview
This instructional plan combined Math SOL 3.9c and WIDA English Language Development Standards. The lesson includes several activity options.
Note: Some images may not appear in the "Overview". To view all images in this instructional plan, click "download" at the bottom of the overview.
Sample Instructional Plan
#GoOpenVA Tags: ELL/EL/ML/ESL/ELD, English Learner, English Language Learner, WIDA, 3rd Grade, Math SOL 3.9c, Equivalent Periods of Time, Cause and Effect
Equivalent Periods of Time
Content and Language Connections
SOL  KLU  Language Expectation(s): interpret and construct (Mathematics argumentative) texts by
 Language Feature/ Essential Skill 1: Crossdisciplinary {Tier 2} language {connected to language function/expectation}  Language Feature/ Essential Skill 2: ContentSpecific Technical language {Tier 3} {explore the text, search see content curriculum framework, search the topic online for ideas}  Language Feature/ Essential Skill 3: grammar skill most needed for the task 
3.9c The student will identify equivalent periods of time and solve practical problems related to equivalent periods of time  Argue  Justifying conclusion steps and strategies in simple patterns
 because, so, since, that means, this is why, therefore
 equivalent, period of time, hour, minute, second, week, month, year, solve, problem, strategy, add, addition, plus, sum, multiplication, multiply, times, product, equals, calendar, exactly, how many, total  Use relating verbs (have, be) to identify equivalent periods of time.

Differentiated Language Expectations Samples*
Entering (1) & Emerging (2)  Developing (3) & Expanding (4)  Bridging (5) & Reaching (6) 
The solution to the problem is _____ because there are _______ seconds/minutes/hours/days in _______.
To solve the problem we add/multiply _______. _____plus/times ______ equals ____. So, the solution to the problem is _____.

Since there are _______ seconds/minutes/hours/days in _______, the solution to the problem is ______.
To solve the problem we add/multiply _______. _____plus/times ______ equals ____. This is why the solution to the problem is _____. 
There are _______ seconds/minutes/hours/days in _______. Therefore, the solution to the problem is ______.
To solve the problem we add/multiply _______. _____plus/times ______ equals ____. Thus/Consequently, the solution to the problem is _____. 
*See the Proficiency Level Descriptors, page 103 for additional ideas in the WIDA English Language Development Standards Framework, 2020 Edition: KindergartenGrade 12
Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes
 Integrate interpretive (reading, listening, viewing) and expressive (speaking, writing, representing) skills to learn and communicate ideas connected to gradelevel content
 SocialEmotional Skills and Connections:
 Relationship Skills communicating effectively
 SelfAwareness Identifying personal, cultural, and linguistic assets
 Technology Skills
Essential Understandings
 Language helps me communicate my ideas and thinking and learn new information.
 My home language, my experiences, and my critical thinking skills help me learn about topics and ideas in a new language.
Materials and Resources
 This lesson plan is based on the Calendar Math lesson plan available under Instructional Resources on the VDOE’s website. Click here to see the original version.
 Anchor Charts
 Word Bank:
To identify equivalent periods of time:
equivalent, period of time, hour, minute, second, week, month, year  To justify the solution to a problem:
solve, problem, strategy, because, so, that means, this is why, therefore, since, add, plus, sum, multiply, times, product, equals 
Content and Language Learning Plan (T for Teacher, Ss for Students)
Welcome and Introduction to Learning
 T starts with a welcome, community building task, and refers to norms and expectations for respect towards self and others.
 T posts, explains, and unpacks the content and language objective(s).
 T briefly explains the terms equivalent, period of time and the word problem, as used in mathematics (not digging into the content yet) using vocabulary, images, or models.
 T explains that to argue is to use language to change someone else’s point of view, to bring about action or to ask someone else to accept our position or view about something. The language objectives will be to use words to get others to accept our position as to how a problem involving periods of time can be solved.
Activating and Building Background Knowledge
Language Domain: Writing, Speaking, Reading
 T reviews concept of time using Periods of Time activity sheet. T allows Ss to work with a partner and write everything they know about each period of time under the header. T challenges Ss to think of information others may not know, but explains that only accurate information will be shared with the class. Ss can use primary language and T could use an electronic device to translate as needed.
Periods of Time  
Minute  Hour  Day  Week  Month  Year 






 T then uses accurate information listed by the students to make an anchor chart.
 T writes the sentence frames below and explains that “when we describe equivalent periods of time, or really anything, we can use is/ has or for plural (more than one) we can use are/have.”
 T writes the following sentence frames with examples underlined as seen below:
1 minute is equivalent to 60 seconds.
1 minute has 60 seconds.
There are 60 seconds in 1 minute.
 T has Ss echo/whisper read along each row in the chart following the model above.
Learning Activity: Associating activities with periods of time
Language Domains: Reading, Speaking
 T shows Ss a few activities accompanied by visuals as shown below.
 T writes the words seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, years on the board.
 T writes a couple of answers that are an accurate estimate for each activity and has Ss brainstorm how much time each activity may take.
 T provides a sentence frame for Ss to share/discuss their responses:
It may take ______to _______.
Activity  Time activity may take 
Brush your teeth 

Sharpen your pencil 

Give your dog a bath 

Build a house 

 ThinkPairShare. T writes different periods of time on board or refers to the Equivalent Periods of Time anchor chart and has Ss write an activity that may take that long, then compare their answers with a partner. T encourages use of Ss home language to complete activity. T can also have Ss share answers with a partner who speaks the same home language to discuss their answers. Ss share their answers with the class and T leads a discussion on whether the activities listed are reasonable for each allotted time (Ss can use hand signals to indicate their agreement). T uses visuals and/or translator as needed/appropriate.
Learning Activity: Matching equivalent periods of time
Language Domains: Reading, Speaking, Writing
 T reviews the equivalent periods of time anchor chart with Ss and uses sentence frames to engage Ss in active participation (refer to chart and sentence frames in Activating Background Knowledge activity.)
 Ss cut apart the equivalent periods of time cards in handout (click here for pdf) and work in pairs to match the equivalent periods of time and the steps involved in pairing them correctly. T can show Ss 1 hour = 60 minutes as the first matching cards and explain that some of the equivalent periods of time in the anchor chart are facts and we may not need a strategy to solve them. T can also help Ss match the next pair (2 hours = 120 minutes) with the correct steps (60 + 60 = 120 / 60 x 2 = 120). T assists as needed and checks that Ss have matched them accurately.
 T models how to ask others about their strategies for solving the math problems about equivalent time, e.g. ‘How did you solve that problem?’ or ‘What strategy did you use to solve that problem?’ Then, T models how Ss can reply, e.g. ‘I used the same strategy of adding/multiplying’ or ‘I used a different strategy. I added/multiplied.’ T writes the language he/she modeled on the board for Ss to refer to.
 Ss glue the matching equivalent periods of time onto the Equivalent Times Recording Sheet and write their strategy (T directs their attention to the anchor chart if needed) as they did in the problemsolving activity. T directs Ss to include the steps (from card in matching activity) in the Strategy to Solve column. Again, T can show Ss 1 hour = 60 minutes as the first matching cards and explain that the equivalent periods of time in the anchor chart are facts and we may not need a strategy to solve them. (Sentence frames and answers are shown in red.)
CARD 1  CARD 2  STRATEGY TO SOLVE
WORD BANK:
A ____ has ____. There are ____ in a ____. Add __ + ___ = ___ + plus = equals Multiply ___ x ___ = ___ x times  STEPS 
1 hour  60 minutes   

2 hours  120 minutes 
 60 + 60 = 120 60 x 2 = 120 
1 day  24 hours   

2 days  48 hours 
 24 + 24 = 48 24 x 2 = 48 
14 days  2 weeks 
 7 + 7 = 14 7 x 2 = 14 
21 days  3 weeks 
 7 + 7 + 7 = 21 7 x 3 = 21 
1 year  12 month   

2 years  24 months 
 12 + 12 = 24 12 x 2 = 24 
Learning Activity: Explaining/Justifying solutions to problems involving equivalent periods of time
Language Domains: Reading, Speaking, Writing
*Reading texts should be multicultural and reflective of Ss identities’ in the class, to the extent possible
 T reads a problem involving periods of time (see T chart below) and encourages Ss to follow along. T highlights or underlines key words in the problem and also uses a visual to go along with the problem, as shown.* The sample problem reads, “The school nurse, Ms. Garcia, went on vacation last weekend. She was gone for exactly two days. How many hours was she gone?”
 T allows Ss to try solving the problem with a partner and provides writing materials for Ss to record their strategy and their answer. T can choose to give Ss the steps needed to work out the problem as well as the solution and have Ss talk about how to solve it.
 A day has 24 hours. Ms. Garcia was gone for 2 days. To determine the number of hours in two days, we can use addition (24 + 24) or multiplication (24 x 2). The solution is 48 because the sum of 24 + 24 is 48 and the product of 24 x 2 is 48.
 T also writes the words I added ____ + _____ and I multiplied ____ x _____ and refers Ss to them to talk about how they solved the problem.
*Images included in the T chart were found using Google Images and are available under a Creative Commons License.
 T asks Ss to share their justifications to the solution and takes note of important words Ss used to explain their strategy as well as use of the verbs is, are or has, as needed. T uses language shared by Ss to cocreate an anchor chart. T engages Ss in a conversation about the math operation(s) involved in solving the problem and adds to the cocreated anchor chart, as suggested below.
 T presents Ss with an additional followup question such as, ‘What if the principal was gone for 5 days? How many hours would he/she be gone then?” T allows time for Ss to figure out the followup question and then again, refers to the anchor chart to have Ss use math language to justify their answer and the strategy used. T also asks Ss if they used the same strategy for the second question or a different one and encourages Ss to respond.
 T gives Ss a different problem on a handout (sample with differentiated sentence frames in red below.) T should also have this problem and a visual available to display.
PROBLEM
The doctor says Mohamed has to wear a cast for 6 weeks.
How many days will he have to wear a cast?  SOLUTION
Mohamed will have to wear a cast for _______ days because / since there are _____ days in a ______.
Mohamed will have to wear a cast for 6 weeks. Therefore, he will have to wear it for ______ days.

STRATEGY
To determine the number of days that Mohamed will have to wear a cast, we can use _______. We ________ ________ because there are 7 days in one week. So / That means that / Thus / Consequently, Mohamed will have to wear a cast for _____ days.

Learning Activity Option: Focus on Listening
 Ss listen to three different examples of how students solved a problem involving periods of time. T gives Ss a handout with visuals and questions for each problem, as suggested below.. T reads the prompt as well as each problem and answer choice (script in red below.) T can choose to pair Ss to accommodate those with beginning literacy or proficiency skills.
Mr. Chen’s 3rd grade class is learning about equivalent periods of time. He asked his students to give him examples of events happening in their lives right now. Mr. Chen then used some of the activities shared to create math problems for his students to solve. Listen to each problem and the strategy used by the student. Then, answer the question. 
Which of the following reflects the strategy Anjana used to solve the problem?

2.
What did Diego determine by multiplying 7 x 4?

3. source
What strategy did Khalid use to solve the problem?

Teacher script for listening activity:
Mr. Chen’s 3rd grade class is learning about equivalent periods of time. He asked his students to give him examples of activities they have done lately. Mr. Chen then used some of the activities shared to create math problems for his students to solve. Listen to each problem and the strategy used by the student. Then, answer the questions.
1. Anjana told Mr. Chen that she helped her mom in the garden for two hours on Saturday. He asked her exactly how many minutes she helped her mom. Anjana knows that there are 60 minutes in one hour. Since she helped her mom for two hours, Anjana decided to use addition to solve the problem. She added 60 plus 60. The sum of her addition is 120 minutes. So, Anjana told Mr. Chen that she helped her mom in the garden for 120 minutes.
Which of the following shows the strategy Anjana used to solve the problem?
2. Diego said that they just got duck eggs and put them in an incubator. His dad told him it will take 4 weeks for the eggs to hatch. Mr. Chen asked Diego how many days they will have to wait for the eggs to hatch. Diego knows there are 7 days in one week. Since his dad said that they have to wait for four weeks, Diego decided to use multiplication to solve the problem. He multiplied 7 times 4. The product of his multiplication is 28 days. So, Diego told Mr. Chen that he and his family have to wait 28 days for the duck eggs to hatch.
What did Diego determine by multiplying 7 x 4?
3. Khalid told Mr. Chen that his grandmother is coming to visit him. He is very excited because he hasn’t seen his grandmother in three years. Mr. Chen asked Khalid how many months has it been since he last saw his grandmother. Khalid knows that there are 12 months in one year. Since he hasn’t seen his grandmother in two years, Khalid decided to multiply. He multiplied 12 times 3. The product of his multiplication is 36. So, Khalid told Mr. Chen that he hasn’t seen his grandmother in 36 months.
What strategy did Khalid use to solve the problem?

Learning Activity Option: Focus on Writing
 Ss work individually or with a partner to write their own problems. Ss write the solutions and the strategies used separately. T can extend the activity to other language domains by having Ss exchange problems with another student or group, solve each other’s problems and then discuss whether they arrived at the solution using the same strategy.
 Note: T can provide the steps using numbers and symbols for students to translate into words/sentences.
Additional Strategies for Advancing Beginning Literacy for Level 1 Newcomer ELs
 Reinforce any phonics and phonemic awareness skills needed using the language expectations and any texts (written or audio) in the lesson.
Formative Assessment Ideas and Suggested Tools
WIDA’s Proficiency Level Descriptors on pages 102103 can be used to create a rubric for language development and measure growth between units. ELs should never be penalized for not using language beyond their current proficiency level without the proper supports and plenty of opportunities for practice followed by productive teacher feedback.
Exit Slips/Other Formative Assessment Ideas:
 Exit slip: Ss complete the equivalent periods of time chart. T provides a practical problem differentiating the wording of the problem as needed. Ss read and solve the problem in the exit slip and justify their answer by writing the strategy used to solve the problem. T can choose to include an answer bank for Ss at beginning proficiency levels.
 
60 seconds =  
60 minutes =  
24 hours =  
7 days =  
12 months 52 weeks = 365 days  

 Review the Objectives: Ss complete a selfassessment as part of an exit ticket to evaluate their learning connected to the objectives.
 Checklist: T uses a matrix of Ss names to record when Ss used the expected language during class (virtually: to be used from analyzing the chat box, listening in on breakout rooms or whole class discussions/student whiparound responses to prompts, studentsubmitted recording.).
Student’s name  Tier 2  Tier 3 















Speaking Task formatted like ACCESS for ELLs
Mr. Chen has a 3rd grade summer school class. On the last day, he tells his students that they will have three weeks of summer break before starting school again. His students ask how many days there are in three weeks. Mr. Chen shows them a calendar and writes on his board how they can solve that problem. Listen to Mr. Chen.
Today is our last day of summer school. You will have 3 weeks of break before starting school again. That means that you will have 21 days without school.
We can use two different strategies to determine how many days there are in three weeks. Look at the chart and think about how I solved this problem.
Murat, what is one strategy that we can use to determine the number of days in three weeks? 
There are 7 days in a week. To determine the number of days in 3 weeks, we can use multiplication. We multiply the number of days by the number of weeks. 7 x 3 equals 21, so there are 21 days in 3 weeks. 
Now, it’s your turn. What is another way Mr. Chen showed his students to determine the number of days in three weeks?
Writing Task formatted like ACCESS for ELLs
The third graders are going on a field trip to the zoo.
As they are leaving, they ask their teacher how long the bus ride will be. Mr. Chen tells the students that the bus ride will be two hours and reminds them that there are 60 minutes in 1 hour. He then asks Raul how many minutes the ride to the zoo would be.
Using his knowledge of equivalent periods of time, how can Raul figure out the number of minutes in two hours? Write a paragraph of 3 to 4 sentences telling about what Raul can do to solve this problem. Use details to support your answer.
Think about these questions to help you get ideas for your writing.
Organize your writing. You can use a separate piece of paper to solve the problem if you need to.

Extension Ideas for the Other KLUs
Genre Family KLU  Example Language Expectation 
Narrate  Choose a period of time and tell about an activity that took that amount of time

Inform  Create a yearlong calendar to see the span of time and make connections between days, weeks, months and year 
Explain  Tell why it is helpful to know equivalent periods of time (minutes in an hour, hours in a day, days in a week, weeks in a month, months/weeks/days in a year.) 
Additional Attachments, Links, and Resources
 Just in Time Quick check for this SOL available on VDOE’s website.
 EL Teacher Toolkit
Connections to the WIDA ELD Standards Framework, 2020 Edition
The lesson plan above was created to connect to the Virginia context based on the following components listed in the WIDA English Language Development Standards Framework, 2020 Edition: KindergartenGrade 12
KLU  Language Functions from within the Language Expectation Set  Language Feature(s) 
Argue pg. 93  Justify conclusion steps and strategies in simple patterns through  Causal connectors (because, so, that means, this is why, thus, therefore) to present case to others 
Explain pg. 92  Introduce a concept or entity through  Relating verbs (be, have) to define or describe content (There are 60 minutes in an hour / An hour has 60 minutes) 
Explain pg. 92  Describe solution and steps used to solve problem with others through  Connectors to show causal relationship (because, so, then) 
Explain pg. 92  State reasoning used to generate solution through  If/then clause structures to show reasoning 
This lesson was carefully crafted by Elizabeth Schenkel for the VDOE.
by the Virginia Department of Education, 2021